New dinosaur discovery in Venezuela


This video is called New type of dinosaur Laquintasaura venezuelae was turkey-sized.

From Wildlife Extra:

A new species of dinosaur that roamed northern South America 200 million years ago has been discovered in Venezuela.

This is the first time a dinosaur has been has been found here and in this honour it has been named Laquintasaura venezuelae.

Measuring about a metre long and 25 centimetres tall Laquintasaura would have been about the size of a small dog and belong to the ‘bird-hipped’, or Ornithischia, group of dinosaurs which later gave rise to Stegosaurus.

It was largely herbivorous- though the curve of some of its teeth suggest it might have also feasted on insects and small prey.

The discovery of it in small groups, which included juveniles and fully grown adults, could indicate they were living in herds; something that was not thought to have occurred in this sort of dinosaur until the Late Jurassic around 40 million years later.

‘It is fascinating and unexpected to see they lived in herds, something we have little evidence of so far in dinosaurs from this time,’ says lead author Dr Paul Barrett. “It’s always exciting to discover a new dinosaur species but there are many surprising firsts with Laquintasaura.”

See also here.

The scientific description of this new species is here.

Dinosaurs got extinct, how about dinosaur age plants?


This video says about itself:

The Day The Mesozoic Died HD

30 May 2013

The disappearance of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous period posed one of the greatest, long-standing scientific mysteries. This three-act film tells the story of the extraordinary detective work that solved it. Shot on location in Italy, Spain, Texas, Colorado, and North Dakota, the film traces the uncovering of key clues that led to the stunning discovery that an asteroid struck the Earth 66 million years ago, triggering a mass extinction of animals, plants, and even microorganisms. Each act illustrates the nature and power of the scientific method. Representing a rare instance in which many different disciplines—geology, physics, biology, chemistry, paleontology—contributed to a revolutionary theory, the film is intended for students in all science classes.

From Laelaps blog today:

Planting the Cenozoic Garden

by Brian Switek

Sixty six million years ago, a global catastrophe extinguished the non-avian dinosaurs. This is common knowledge. It’s also too narrow a view. Various forms of life disappeared in the same geologic instant – from coil-shelled ammonites to some forms of mammal – and others, for reasons as yet unknown, survived.

Plants are among the neglected of the victims and survivors. A magnolia tree does not hold the same cultural cachet as Tyrannosaurus. The post-impact “fern spike” is often cited as a symbol of wide-ranging devastation, but, outside technical journals, that’s about the extent of our attention span for paleoflora. That’s a shame. If we’re going to understand how life on Earth was so deeply wounded 66 million years ago, and how it bounced back, we should be looking more closely at the prehistoric garden.

Hot on the heels of a review summarizing the global dinosaurian picture at the end of the Cretaceous, Lund University paleobotanists Vivi Vajda and Antoine Bercovici have now assembled a view of how plants were affected by the Earth’s fifth mass extinction. Prehistoric pollen and spores tell the story.

The advantage of looking at fossil pollen, Vajda and Bercovici write, is that there’s plenty of it. That’s not only because plants produce large amounts of the reproductive material, but because pollen is also incredibly durable. If you want to see who’s living where, and how environments change through time, these microscopic plant fossils are good way to do it.

In some ways, the story of the Cretaceous plants echoes what paleontologists have found among other forms of life. The Cretaceous world was a highly-dynamic one marked by fluctuating sea levels, the further breakup of continents, and the formation of new mountain ranges. All this moving and shuffling created evolutionary pockets where new species could evolve in relative isolation, becoming restricted to their particular province. Plants proliferated and evolved according to these boundaries just as dinosaurs did.

Each of the pollen provinces, outlined by Vajda and Bercovici, have their own distinctive profile. In northern North America, Asia, and a few spots in South America, Late Cretaceous sediments commonly contain Aquilapollenites – pollen thought to have come from a group of plants closely related to the modern sandalwood. A neighboring province – stretching from eastern North America to the Himalayas – is dominated by pollen from a Cretaceous birch relative, while rocks from the same time in northern South America, central Africa, and India are rife with pollen from palms. Rounding out the set, a southern hemisphere swath has plenty of pollen from plants related to southern beeches and shrubs.

These were not the only plants to exist in those areas, of course, but their pollen broadly delineates differentiated patches. Paleobotanists can zoom in from there, and, as with dinosaurs, the best-studied sites on the planet document the end of the Cretaceous through the beginning of the Paleogene in western North America.

The forests that Tyrannosaurus and Triceratops knew were dominated by angiosperms – flowering plants – with some conifers, ferns, ginkgos, and cycads for good measure. Palm trees stood alongside evergreens and towered above a shrubby understory in these Late Cretaceous forests. In the aftermath of the impact 66 million years ago, however, those forests were replaced by a relatively small collection of angiosperms, a shadow of the diversity that the Edmontosaurus and kin knew.

Plants suffered extinctions just as many other forms of life did. In fact, some of them dwindle to nothing right at the K-Pg boundary are called “K-species” or “K-taxa.” In the pollen record of North America, for example, the sandalwood relative and a suite of species in seven other genera give way to species in just two genera. Overall, about 60% of plant species present in Cretaceous North America went extinct. The rest of the globe reflects a similar pattern, albeit with different species. Many pollen-producing plants either went entirely extinct or became much less abundant.

Clues from the earliest days of the Paleogene track how plant life eventually bounced back. While sites in New Zealand preserve a “fungal spike” from when mushrooms and their ilk thrived on decomposing matter under blacked-out skies, the subsequent “fern spike” records when pioneering plants – primarily ferns – quickly spread as sunlight began to return. The angiosperms, as well as some conifers, followed, but with fewer species than before. Depending on the location, plant life took between one and ten million years to recover to pre-extinction levels of diversity.

As with the animals, though, why some plants went extinct and others persisted is a mystery. Perhaps some were simply lucky enough to grow in places that were less affected by the devastation following the asteroid strike. Then again, Vajda and Bercovici point out, some researchers have suggested that plants carrying additional sets of chromosomes – or were polyploid – might have had the genetic flexibility to more quickly adapt after ecological shock.

Discerning what made a survivor isn’t just an exercise in replaying ancient history, though.

Vajda and Bercovici argue that two previous mass extinctions – roughly 251 and 200 million years ago – follow a similar pattern of a highly-diverse flora being pruned back, followed by crisis species, pioneer communities, and ecosystem recovery in sequence. Which left me to wonder if we’re going to see this pattern again. If  we’re not yet in a Sixth Extinction, we’re close, and identifying likely survivors verses vulnerable species is an essential part of conservation triage. By sifting through the past, down to the tiniest pollen grain, we can reflect on what sort of future we want to create.

Reference:

Vajda, V., Bercovici, A. 2014. The global vegetation pattern across the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction interval: A template for other extinction events. Global and Planetary Change. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.07.014

Tyrannosaurs hunted in packs?


This video is called Tyrannosaur Rivalry – Planet Dinosaur – Episode 3 – BBC One.

From daily The Guardian in Britain:

Researchers find first sign that tyrannosaurs hunted in packs

Discovery of three sets of dinosaur trackways in Canada reveals that predators were running together

Ian Sample, science editor

Wednesday 23 July 2014 19.36 BST

The collective noun is a terror of tyrannosaurs: a pack of the prehistoric predators, moving and hunting in numbers, for prey that faced the fight of its life.

That tyrannosaurs might have hunted in groups has long been debated by dinosaur experts, but with so little to go on, the prospect has remained firmly in the realm of speculation.

But researchers in Canada now claim to have the strongest evidence yet that the ancient beasts did move around in packs.

At a remote site in the country’s northeast, they uncovered the first known tyrannosaur trackways, apparently left by three animals going the same way at the same time.

Unlike single footprints which have been found before, tyrannosaur trackways are made up of multiple steps, revealing the length of stride and other features of the animal’s movement. What surprised the Canadian researchers was the discovery of multiple tracks running next to each other – with each beast evidently keeping a respectable distance from its neighbour.

Richard McCrea at the Peace Region Palaeontology Research Centre in British Columbia was tipped off about one trackway in October 2011 when a hunting guide working in the area emailed him some pictures. The guide had found one footprint that was already exposed and later uncovered a second heading in the same direction. McCrea made immediate plans to investigate before the winter blanketed the site with snow.

He arrived later the same month and found a third footprint that belonged to the same trackway under volcanic ash. But the real discovery came a year later, when the team returned and uncovered two more sets of tyrannosaur tracks running in the same south-easterly direction.

“We hit the jackpot,” said McCrea. “A single footprint is interesting, but a trackway gives you way more. This is about the strongest evidence you can get that these were gregarious animals. The only stronger evidence I can think of is going back in a time machine to watch them.”

The footprints were so well-preserved that even the contours of the animals’ skin were visible. “You start wondering what it would have been like to have been there when the tracks were made. The word is terror. I wouldn’t want to meet them in a dark alley at night,” McCrea said.

From the size of the footprints, the researchers put the beasts in their late 20s or early 30s – a venerable age for tyrannosaurs. The depth of the prints and other measurements suggest the tracks were left at the same time. They date back to nearly 70m years ago.

Close inspection of the trackways found that the tyrannosaur that left the first set of prints had a missing claw from its left foot, perhaps a battle injury. Details of the study are published in the journal Plos One.

During the expedition, McCrea’s team unearthed more prehistoric footprints from other animals, notably hadrosaurs, or duck-billed dinosaurs. Crucially, these were heading in all sorts of directions, evidence, says McCrea, that the tyrannosaurs chose to move as a pack, and were not simply forced into a group by the terrain.

“When you find three trackways together, going in same direction, it’s not necessarily good evidence for gregarious behaviour. They could be walking along a shore. But if all the other animals are moving in different directions, it means there is no geographical constraint, and it strengthens the case,” said McCrea.

Biggest ever apatosaurus discovery in Colorado


This video is called Origami Dinosaur: APATOSAURUS.

From the Grand Junction Free Press in the USA:

Record dinosaur bone found in Colorado quarry

By Brittany Markert

07/21/2014 12:01:00 AM MDT

Rabbit Valley’s Mygatt-Moore quarry is home to hundreds of fossils left behind by dinosaurs and extinct sea creatures. Its most notable recent find was a 6-foot-7-inch-long, 2,800-pound apatosaurus femur.

That is the largest apatosaurus ever found anywhere, said Dinosaur Journey curator of paleontology Julia McHugh.

It is a groundbreaking discovery because it belonged to a beast likely 80 to 90 feet long, which is 15 to 25 feet longer than average, she said.

After five summers of work excavating the dinosaur leg bone, it was lifted Thursday morning from the quarry outside Grand Junction near the Utah border. A crew of experts led by the Museum of Western Colorado’s Dinosaur Journey Museum oversaw the excavation.

“It’s funny that it was discovered from a small piece exposed about the size of a pancake,” volunteer Dorthy Stewart said.

The creature ordinarily grew up to 69 feet long and ate plants.

According to the National Park Service, “You may have heard it referred to by its scientifically incorrect name, Brontosaurus. This sauropod (long-necked dinosaur) was discovered and named Apatosaurus, or ‘false lizard,’ because of its unbelievably large size. After Apatosaurus was named, other sauropod specimens were named Brontosaurus. It was later determined that both names actually referred to the same animal, Apatosaurus.”

Four-winged Chinese dinosaur discovery


This video says about itself:

Reptiles of the Skies – Walking with Dinosaurs in HQ – BBC

9 November 2012

The Cretaceous period saw the breaking up of the northern and southern landmasses. Flying dinosaurs like Tapejara would master the air and the new coast lines of prehistoric Earth. The largest flying dinosaur Ornithocheirus prepares for a long flight to breeding grounds.

However, this video is about pterosaurs: flying non-dinosaurs, living at the same time as dinosaurs.

From daily The Guardian in Britain:

Four-winged flying dinosaur unearthed in China

Newly discovered Changyuraptor yangi lived 125m years ago and was like ‘a big turkey with a really long tail’

Nishad Karim

Tuesday 15 July 2014 17.18 BST

A new species of prehistoric, four-winged dinosaur discovered in China may be the largest flying reptile of its kind.

The well-preserved, complete skeleton of the dinosaur Changyuraptor yangi features a long tail with feathers 30cm in length – the longest ever seen on a dinosaur fossil. The feathers may have played a major role in flight control, say scientists in the latest issue of Nature Communications, in particular allowing the animal to reduce its speed to land safely.

The 125m-year-old fossil, believed to be an adult, is completely covered in feathers, including long feathers attached to its legs that give the appearance of a second set of wings or “hind wings”. It is the largest four-winged dinosaur ever found, 60% larger than the previous record holder, Microraptor zhaoianus, in the family of dinosaurs known as microraptors.

These beasts were smaller versions of their closely related, larger cousins, the velociraptors made famous in the Jurassic Park movies. They belong to an even wider group including the king of all dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus rex. At 1.3 metres long and weighing 4kg, the meat-eating C. yangi is one of the largest members of the microraptor family, which tended to weigh 1kg or less.

Microraptors, which are close relatives of modern birds, had many anatomical features that are now only seen in birds, such as hollow bones, nesting behavior, feathers and possibly flight. They were dinosaurs rather than pterosaurs, the more well known flying prehistoric reptiles.

C. yangi was [like] a big turkey with a really long tail,” said Dr Alan Turner from Stony Brook University, one of the authors of the paper. “We don’t know for sure if C. yangi was flying or gliding, but we can sort of piece together this bigger model by looking at what its tail could do. Whether or not this animal could fly is part of a bigger puzzle and we’re adding a piece to that puzzle.”

The fossil was discovered in Liaoning province, northeastern China, an area noted for the large number of feathered dinosaurs found over the past decade, including the first widely acknowledged feathered dinosaur, Sinosauropteryx prima, in 1996.

Before this study, it was thought that the small size of microraptors was a key adaptation needed for flight, but the discovery of C. yangi suggests that aerial ability was not restricted to smaller animals in this group.

See also here.

Steven Spielberg attacked by Facebook users for ‘killing dinosaur’


Steven Spielberg with 'dead' Triceratops

These Facebook users should reserve their criticism for people like the king of Spain or the United States Trump dynasty, who really kill animals which are still alive today, contrary to dinosaurs

From daily The Independent in Britain:

Steven Spielberg mercilessly trolled by Facebook users who think he killed a dinosaur

This is not a joke – Facebook users riot over an image of the director on the set of Jurassic Park

Ella Alexander

Friday 11 July 2014

Steven Spielberg has been trolled by numerous Facebook users after a photo was shared of the director with a mechanical Triceratops on the set of 1993 film Jurassic Park.

The image was posted on the Facebook page of Jay Branscomb as a joke, alongside the caption:

“Disgraceful photo of recreational hunter happily posing next to a Triceratops he just slaughtered. Please share so the world can name and shame this despicable man.”

Incredibly, a fair few members of the public didn’t grasp that the picture was taken from the Jurassic Park set, believing that Spielberg had actually poached a dinosaur; dinosaurs, a breed of animals that became extinct 66 million years ago.

The image has been shared over 33,000 times attracting thousands of comments, initially from misinformed users (apparently unaware that dinosaurs are no longer) and also those lamenting their stupidity.

Tyrell Patrick branded Spielberg “a worthless son of a b****!”, while Scoomp Pi called it a “sad, disgusting scene”.

Becky Daigle said: “One day we realise that we are killing all animals on this planet and we need them to survive. But, when we realise it will be too late.”

“I did not know that Steven Spielberg is a dinosaur hunter,” said Andrea O’Donnell Koran. “I am not only outraged, but disgusted!!”

“This is no sport!!” cried Omega McCracken, as Sondre Jorstad questioned: “Why did he kill such a rare animal?”

It is hoped that some were sarcastic, but some were so detailed it’s difficult to believe they weren’t sincere.

“He’s a disgusting inhumane p***k,” said Penelope Rayzor Buchand. “I’d love to see these hunters be stopped. I think zoos are the best way to keep these innocent animals safe… assholes like this piece of s**t are going into these beautiful animals’ homes… and killing them. It’s no different to someone coming into your home and murdering you… I’m not watching any of your movies again ANIMAL KILLER.”

Branscomb shared the picture in the wake of Facebook’s decision to delete the photos of Texan cheerleader Kendall Jones, which showed her standing next to animals that she had killed, including a leopard and a lion.

See also here.

A high school freshman in South Carolina wrote a story for a class assignment about his neighbor’s pet dinosaur. Problem is, he also wrote that he killed that dinosaur using a gun, and teachers were so alarmed they called the cops, at which point the boy was arrested and suspended from school for three days: here.

‘Birds descended not from dinosaurs, but from more ancient reptiles’


This video is called Wing evolution 1 of 4.

And these three videos are the sequels.

From Wildlife Extra:

Forensic examination reveals that birds did not descend from dinosaurs

The re-examination of a sparrow-sized fossil from China challenges the commonly held belief that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs that gained the ability to fly.

The birdlike fossil is not actually a dinosaur, as previously thought, but rather the remains of a tiny tree-climbing animal that could glide, say American researchers Stephen Czerkas of the Dinosaur Museum in Blanding, Utah, and Alan Feduccia of the University of North Carolina.

The study appears in Springer’s Journal of Ornithology.

Their findings validate predictions first made in the early 1900s that the ancestors of birds were small, tree-dwelling archosaurs which enhanced their incipient ability to fly with feathers that enabled them to at least glide.

This “trees down” view is in contrast with the “ground up” view embraced by many palaeontologists in recent decades that birds derived from terrestrial theropod dinosaurs.

The fossil of the Scansoriopteryx (which means “climbing wing”) was found in Inner Mongolia, and is part of an ongoing cooperative study with the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences.

It was previously classified as a coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur, from which many experts believe flying dinosaurs and later birds evolved.

The research duo used advanced 3D microscopy, high resolution photography and low angle lighting to reveal structures not clearly visible before.

These techniques made it possible to interpret the natural contours of the bones.

Many ambiguous aspects of the fossil’s pelvis, forelimbs, hind limbs, and tail were confirmed, while it was discovered that it had elongated tendons along its tail vertebrae similar to Velociraptor.

Czerkas and Feduccia say that Scansoriopteryx unequivocally lacks the fundamental structural skeletal features to classify it as a dinosaur.

They also believe that dinosaurs are not the primitive ancestors of birds.

The Scansoriopteryx should rather be seen as an early bird whose ancestors are to be found among tree-climbing archosaurs that lived in a time well before dinosaurs.

Through their investigations, the researchers found a combination of plesiomorphic or ancestral non-dinosaurian traits along with highly derived features.

It has numerous unambiguous birdlike features such as elongated forelimbs, wing and hind limb feathers, wing membranes in front of its elbow, half-moon shaped wrist-like bones, bird-like perching feet, a tail with short anterior vertebrae, and claws that make tree climbing possible.

The researchers specifically note the primitive elongated feathers on the forelimbs and hind limbs.

This suggests that Scansoriopteryx is a basal or ancestral form of early birds that had mastered the basic aerodynamic maneouvers of parachuting or gliding from trees.

“The identification of Scansoriopteryx as a non-dinosaurian bird enables a re-evaluation in the understanding of the relationship between dinosaurs and birds,” explained Czerkas.

“Scientists finally have the key to unlock the doors that separate dinosaurs from birds.”

Feduccia added: “Instead of regarding birds as deriving from dinosaurs, Scansoriopteryx reinstates the validity of regarding them as a separate class uniquely avian and non-dinosaurian.”

Criticism of this: here.

Dinosaurs shrank for 50 million years to become birds: here.

Rare Evolutionary Twist Morphed Dino Arms into Bird Wings: here.