Europe’s largest underground insect discovered in Portugal

Thiss video from Bangladesh is called Apterygote and Exopterygote Insect Family identification.

From The Portugal News:

Portuguese biologist makes insect discovery in Algarve


Europe’s largest underground insect was discovered in caves in the Algarve by Portuguese biologist Ana Sofia Reboleira, increasing the number of newly discovered species in Portugal to seven.

Commonly known as ‘silver fish’ or ‘book worms’, the insect’s scientific name is Squamatinia algharbica. According to biologist Sofia Reboleira, “it is the largest underground insect in Europe and the second largest bristletail in the world.”

Being three centimetres long, without eyes, uncoloured and possessing feelers like antennae “that are extremely developed”, the insect is a new species “that lives solely in caves in the Algarve, developing its life cycle underground and not being able to survive outside,” said the biologist.

According to Sofia Reboleira, it is a “bio-geographical relic that survived various episodes of climate change, taking refuge underground” and inhabits the same cave systems where she discovered a giant pseudoscorpion in 2010.

The insect was recently described in the scientific journal ‘Zootaxa’ by entomologist Luís Mendes from the Institute of Scientific and Tropical Investigation.

The discovery was made during research for Ana Sofia Reboleira’s doctorate at the Department of Biology and Centre for Environment and Sea studies at Aveiro University, overseen by professors Fernando Gonçalves from the biology department and Pedro Oromi from the University of Iaguna in Spain.

This new discovery brings the number of new species up to seven described by Ana Reboleira, who has contributed to Portugal’s biological heritage and highlighted … the importance of these species, “which are at risk due to a lack of specific measures to protect underground habitats.”

Birds in Portugal, 12 April

Thursday 12 April.

Today is our last full day in Portugal.

Like yesterday, to Cabanas.

This video is about nature in the Algarve.

Our boat departs from Cabanas harbour. What birds will we see?

On a little beach near the harbour, turnstone and Kentish plover.

A great cormorant swims in the harbour.

A bit further, a score of house martins collect mud from a bank for their nests.



A little egret.


Sanderlings on Tavira island.

Two black-tailed godwits on a sandbank.

Grey plover on muddy bank, 12 April 2012

A grey plover.


Juvenile spoonbill near Tavira, 12 April 2012

Spoonbills, both adults with black bills; and a youngster with a pink bill.

Grey plover, Cabanas, 12 April 2012

Later, back on land, a beautiful grey plover near the harbour.

Grey plover and greenshank in Portugal

11 April 2012.

After the architecture in Cabanas, the birds.

Greenshank, Cabanas, 11 April 2012

In a tidal marsh near the harbour, a greenshank.

A redshank as well.

Little egret, Cabanas, 11 April 2012

A little egret, coming close enough for photographs.

Then, a grey plover. The Dutch name for this species is “zilverplevier”, silver plover. The English name is more apt for the winter plumage. The Dutch name is more apt for the beautiful summer plumage.

Grey plover and turnstone, Cabanas, 11 April 2012

At 15:55 near Cabanas harbour on the mudflat, a grey plover with transition to summer plumage almost complete. Turnstones and a dunlin are there as well.

Architecture and house martins in Portugal

Wednesday, 11 April.

Cacela Velha is not the only town in Portugal with architecture interesting enough to photograph.

There is also Cabanas de Tavira, more to the west along the Atlantic coast.

Some buildings are new, some are old. Some are in good health, some in bad health.

Cabanas seafront, 11 April 2012

Tiles in Cabanas, 11 April 2012

Tiles, not just for floors, but for walls as well, are typical for much architecture in Portugal.

Roof in Cabanas, 11 April 2012

Customers do not drink on the roof here.

Under the balcony of one “For Sale” building, two house martin couples had done their own architecture.

This photo shows a parent house martin flying away from its chick in the nest.

House martins in Britain: here.

Red-rumped swallows and little egret in Portugal

Wednesday, 11 April.

In the town of Cacela Velha in Portugal, there is not only poetry; and visual arts and architecture.

There are birds as well.

Red-rumped swallows on a wire. As we would find out later, they nest under a house’s balcony. Keep reading …

Little egret, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

At the edge of the salt marsh below the castle hill, a little egret.

A yellow-legged gull on a pole in the water.

As we go down to the beach, something special. On an old agave flower stem, two lesser spotted woodpeckers! Such a small bird, so good at hiding … it was decades ago that I last saw one. And now, two! They hammer on the agave flower stem like on a tree.

Sanderlings, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

Ten sanderlings land on the beach.

This is a video of sanderlings near Tavira.

A whimbrel.

Whimbrel, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

A house martin flying.

A grey plover on the beach.

Grey plover, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

This plover is starting to change from its winter plumage to its beautiful summer plumage.

Two grey plovers on the beach. A dunlin. Two Kentish plovers.

I hear bee-eaters call.

Also greenfinch and blackbird sounds from the dunes.

Two little terns dive bomb into the sea.

A great cormorant flies just above the water.

Turnstone, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

A turnstone.

Fiddler crabs.

Kentish and ringed plover.

In the coastal village, a male blackbird.

Blackbird, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

A corn bunting sings in the dunes.

A buzzard circles in the air.

Black-tailed godwits.

Back to the hilltop of Cacela Velha, where one can hear a hoopoe call.

The red-rumped swallows nest under a house’s balcony.

Red-rumped swallows, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

Often, they sit down on the house’s clothesline, happily mixing with the clothespins.

Red-rumped swallow, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

On a tree behind the clothesline, a corn bunting sings.

Architecture and visual arts in Portugal

Wednesday 11 April 2012 in Portugal.

In the town of Cacela Velha, there is not only poetry.

There is visual arts and architecture as well.

Artificial trees in Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

These artificial trees are next to the old church.

Castle wall, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

And a living palm tree is next to the old rampart wall.

Church, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

The church has more than one side.

Church, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

So has the local pub.

Pub, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

Medieval Islamic and later Portuguese poetry

Wednesday 11 April 2012 in Portugal.

After yesterday, today to the ancient fortress town on the south coast, Cacela Velha.

In various ways, the small town remembers one of its most famous inhabitants, Muslim poet Ibn Darraj al Qastalli (958-1030).

Ibn Darraj square in Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

A square was named after the poet.

Poem by Ibn Darraj on spring, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

One can read lines from a poem by Ibn Darraj on spring in Portuguese, English and French.

Poem by Ibn Darraj on spring,in Portuguese, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

Not far away, lines from that poem in Portuguese only.

Moroccan-Spanish society honours Ibn Darraj, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

The Moroccan-Spanish society also honours Ibn Darraj in Cacela Velha (though the poet was born in Portugal, he was of Moroccan Berber ancestry).

Later Portuguese poets are also honoured with streets named after them in this town.

Teresa Rita Lopes street sign, Cacela Velha, 11 April 2012

For instance, the poetess Teresa Rita Lopes, born in 1937, is honoured with this street sign.

Bee-eater and hoopoe in Portugal

9 April 2012.

After the morning, in the afternoon to the salt pans close to Tavira.

Curlew sandpiper, Tavira, 9 April 2012

Curlew sandpipers.

Kentish plover, Tavira salt pans, 9 April 2012

Kentish plovers.

Sanderling, Tavira salt pan, 9 April 2012


A redshank.

Hoopoe, Tavira, 9 April 2012

In the orchard, a hoopoe sitting on the ground.

Bee-eater, Tavira, 9 April 2012

Bee-eaters flying. One of them sits down on a wire not far away. It has a big insect in its bill, I think a dragonfly. The bird swallows its prey after some seconds.

European serin singing.

Crested larks.

Goldfinch, Tavira, 9 April 2012

European goldfinches in the orchard.

This video is about sunset near Tavira.

Portuguese little tern and redshank

Monday 9 April, after yesterday, in Tavira, Portugal.

In the morning, walking to the mouth of the Gilão river.

House sparrow, Tavira, 9 April 2012

A male house sparrow sits on a rocky roof. A reminder of the origin of this bird species. Thousands of years ago, house sparrows lived in the rocky mountainous border area of what is now Iraq, Iran and Turkey. They fed on grain seeds. When agriculture and the building of stone houses spread from that region to elsewhere, house sparrows extended their range as well, to Europe and elsewhere.

A common sandpiper on the river bank.

On the other side: yellow-legged gull. Two grey plovers.

Curlew sandpipers and sanderlings.

A black-tailed godwit. Probably, an individual later than its colleagues in continuing its migration to the north.

A turnstone.

Bee-eaters flying overhead.

Many avocets in salt pans near the river.

A coot flying over the river.

A dunlin on the bank.

In a salt pan: two black-winged stilts, and a Kentish plover behind them.

Yellow wagtail, Tavira, 9 March 2012

Very many yellow wagtails, resting here from migration.

A white stork.

Little tern, Tavira, 9 April 2012

A little tern rests on a salt pan dike.

Redshank, Tavira salt pan, 9 April 2012

A redshank.

A great cormorant flying.

A magpie on a parking lot. A Eurasian magpie; not an azure-winged magpie for which the Iberian peninsula is famous.

Near the ferry to Tavira island, a little egret looks for food. A whimbrel.